General Studies-III, syllabus

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
  • Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping; Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security; Technology Missions; Economics of Animal-Rearing.
  • Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
  • Land Reforms in India.
  • Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment Models.
  • Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
  • Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.
  • Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
  • Disaster and Disaster Management.
  • Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
  • Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
  • Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
  • Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.


Indian Economy & Issues Relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development & Employment
PlanningMeaning of PlanningNeed for Planning in Economic DevelopmentImperative Vs. Indicative Vs. Structural PlanningObjectives of PlanningIndian Planning HistoryTechniques of Indian PlanningAchievements & Failures of Indian PlanningShortcomings of Planning in IndiaNITI Aayog Vs. Planning CommissionMobilisation of ResourcesTypes of Resources – Financial, Human, Natural etc.Need for Resource MobilisationRole of Savings & InvestmentGovernment Resources – Tax & Non-Tax ( or Fiscal & Monetary Policy)Banking Sector & NBFCsCapital MarketExternal Sources – FDI, ODA etc.Public Borrowing & Management of Public DebtChallenges in Mobilising Resources for DevelopmentSteps That Can Be TakenGrowth & DevelopmentMeaning of Development & GrowthDifference between Development & GrowthDeterminants of Growth & DevelopmentImportance & Limitations of Economic GrowthJobless GrowthPro-Poor GrowthBalanced & Unbalanced GrowthDimensions of DevelopmentMeasurement & Indicators of DevelopmentApproaches to Development:Market-Based ApproachRole of State and Planned ApproachMixed Economy ApproachChallenges to Development & GrowthEmploymentNature – Rural vs. Urban, Formal Vs. InformalTerms Related to Employment – Labour Force Participation Rate, Employment Rate, Working Age Population etc.Sectoral Distribution of EmploymentQuality of EmploymentCauses of Lack of EmploymentRestructuring of WorkforceGovernment Initiatives for Generating Employment
Inclusive Growth & Issues Arising From It
What is Inclusive Growth?Elements of Inclusive GrowthNeed for Inclusive GrowthIndicators of Inclusive GrowthChallenges in Achieveing Inclusive Growth in India12th FYP & Inclusive Growth
Government Budgeting
Need for Government BudgetingComponents of the Government BudgetRevenue Account – Revenue Receipts & Revenue ExpenditureCapital Account – Capital Receipts & Capital ExpenditureChanges in Budgetary Process in 2017Measures of Government DeficitRevenue DeficitFiscal DeficitPrimary DeficitFiscal PolicyDeficit ReductionFRBM ActOther Types of Budgets – Outcome, Zero-Based, etc.
Land Reforms in India
Rationale for Land ReformsComponents of Land ReformsImpact of Land ReformsProblems in Implementaion of Land ReformsSuccess of Land ReformsRecent Initiatives – Land Leasing, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation & Resettlement Act, etc.
Effects of Liberalization on the Economy
Phase of LiberalisationImpact on Different Sectors of the Economy
Changes In Industrial Policy & their Effects on Industrial Growth
Industrial Policy Before 1991Industrial Policy After 1991Phases of Industrial GrowthLinkage Between Economic Reforms and Economic OutcomesWeaknesses and Failures of Industrial PoliciesNational Manufacturing PolicySEZsMake in India
Investment Models
Need for InvestmentSources of InvestmentTypes of Investment ModelsDomestic Investment ModelsPublic Investment ModelPrivate Investment ModelPublic Private Participation Investment ModelForeign Investment Models:FDIFII, etc.Sector Specific Investment ModelsCluster Based Investment ModelsInvestment Models Followed by India


Major Crops Cropping Patterns in Various Parts of the Country
Importance of Cropping PatternTypes of Cropping PatternReasons Why Cropping Pattern DifferFactors Influencing Cropping PatternEmerging Trends in Cropping PatternLong-Run Effects of Current Trends in Cropping Pattern
Different Types of Irrigation & Irrigation Systems Storage
Modes of IrrigationSources of IrrigationChoosing an Irrigation SystemProblems Associated with IrrigationProgress of Irrigation Under Five Year PlansEnvironmental Effects of IrrigationNeed for Systemic Irrigation ReformsNeed for a National Water Policy
Transport & Marketing of Agricultural Produce & Issues & Related Constraints
Process of Agricultural Marketing – Marketing Channels, Functionaries, Costs, etc.Role of FCIRegulated MarketsWarehousingCooperative MarketingShortcomings of Current Agricultural Marketing ProcessAPMCsNational Agricultutral Market (NAM)Farmer Producer Organisations (FPO)Contract FarmingFutures Trading in Agricultural Commodities
E-Technology in the Aid of Farmers, Technology Missions
Issues Related to Direct & Indirect Farm Subsidies & Minimum Support Prices
Agricultural Pricing PolicyRationale for SubsidiesTypes of SubsidiesEffectiveness, Extent & Problems of SubsisiesClash with WTO Agreements
Public Distribution System Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping
Objectices/SignificanceFunctioning – Fair Price Shops, FCI, Ration Cards, Aadhar Linking, etc.Shortcomings or Problems Associated with PDSNeed to Improve the Working of PDSMeasures to Improve the Loopholes & Lacunaes Associated with PDSSteps Taken by Governement in this Regard
Issues of Buffer Stocks & Food Security
Buffer Stock – Objectives & Norms in IndiaImpact of Government Procurement & DistributionNeed for Food SecurityNFSM And othe Food Security Realted Government Initiatives
Economics of Animal-Rearing
Food Processing & Related Industries in India
Scope & Potential in IndiaSignificanceLocationConstraints and ChallengesUpstream & Downstream RequirementsSupply Chain ManagementGovernment Policies and Initiatives – SAMPADA, 12th FYP, etc.


Developments & their Applications & Effects in Everyday Life
Chemicals in FoodArtificial Sweetening AgentsFood PreservativesDrugsAntacidAntihistaminesNeurologically Active DrugsTranquilizersAnalgesicsAntimicrobialsAntibioticsAntiseptic and DisinfectantAnti-Fertility Drugs, etc.Cleansing AgentsSoapsSynthetic detergentsGlassWater SoftenerWater Purification/DisinfectionMicrowave Oven, etc.
Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
Chandrasekhara Venkata RamanAcharya Jagadish Chandra BoseSatyendra Nath BoseMeghnad SahaHomi Jehangir BhabhaSubrahmanyan ChandrasekharA.P.J. Abdul KalamVikram SarabhaiMokshagundam VisvesvarayaHar Gobind KhoranaTessy ThomasC.N.R. Rao
Indigenization of Technology & Developing New Technology
IT & ComputersSpaceNanotechnologyBiotechnologyRoboticsDefenceNuclear
Awareness in Different Fields
IT & ComputersSpaceNanotechnologyBiotechnologyRoboticsDefenceNuclear
Issues Relating to Intellectual Property Rights
Need for Intellectual Property RightsTypes of IPRIPR Regime in IndiaInternational Agreements Related to IPRsGeographical IndicatorsRecent Issues – Evergreening, Compuslory Licensing, Prominent Cases etc.


What is Biodiversity?Types of Biodiversity – Genetic, Species, Ecosystem, etc.Importance of Biodivesirty – Ecosystem Services, Bio Resources of Economic Importance, Social Benefits etc.Resasons for Loss of BiodiversityConservationIn-situ & Ex-SituEco-Sensitive AreasEcological HotspotsNational Guidelines, Legislations & Other Programmes.International Agreements & Groupings
Environmental Pollution & Degradation
Types of Pollution & PollutantsImpact of Pollution & DegradationOzone Layer Depletion and Ozone HoleGreenhouse Gas Effect & Global WarmingEutrophicationDesertificationAcid RainHazardous Waste, etc.Causes/Sources of Pollution & DegradationPrevention & Control of Pollution & DegradationNational Environment Agencies, Legislations and PoliciesInternational Environment Agencies & Agreements
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
What is EIA?Indian Guidelines & LegislationsEIA ProcessNeed & Benefits of EIAShortcomings of EIA in IndiaMeasures to Make EIA Effective
Disaster Management
Types of DisastersManagement of DisastersCommunity Level Disaster ManagementGovernement Initiatives on Disaster Management


Linkages Between Development & Spread of Extremism
Factors Responsible for Spread of ExtremismSteps that State can Taken to Reduce the Spread of Extremism due to UnderdevelopmentNaxalism
Role of External State & Non-State Actors in Creating Challenges to Internal Security
Threats from Non-State ActorsJ&K SeparatismLeft Wing ExtremismNorth East InsurgencyTerrorism in Hinterland & Border AreasRight Wing TerrorismReasons for Spread of TerrorismState Sponsored TerrorismInstitutional Framework to Tackle Challenge of Internal SecurityNIANATGRIDMACUAPATADAPOTANCTC
Challenges to Internal Security Through Communication Networks
Role of Media & Social Networking Sites in Internal Security ChallengesChallenges in Managing Social MediaSteps That can be Taken
Basics of Cyber Security
Cyber SecurityThreats to Indian Cyber SecuritySteps taken by IndiaInternational Cooperation on Cyber SecurityCyber WarfareTerms Associated with Cyber Security
Money-Laundering & its Prevention
Process of Money LaunderingImpact of Money LaunderingChallenges to Tackle Money LaunderingSteps to Counter Money LaunderingTerms Related To Money Laundering
Security Challenges & their Management in Border Areas
Challenges in Managing Border Security – Coastal & TerrestrialLand Boundary Disputes with NeighboursIndia’s Policy in Border Area Security Management
Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism
Types of Organised CrimeChallenges in Controlling Organised CrimeIndian Context – Link between Organised Crime & Terrorism
Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate
Central Armed Police ForcesCentral Paramilitary ForcesSecurity & Intelligence Agencies – IB. R&WA, etc.

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