General Studies-I, syllabus

(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

  • Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence Consolidation and Reorganization within the country.
  • History of the World will include events from 18th century such as Industrial Revolution, world wars, Redrawal of National Boundaries, Colonization, Decolonization, political philosophies like Communism, Capitalism, Socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of Women and Women’s Organization, Population and Associated Issues, Poverty and Developmental issues, Urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of Globalization on Indian society.
  • Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism & Secularism.
  • Salient features of World’s Physical Geography.
  • Distribution of Key Natural Resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical Phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.


Indian Heritage & Culture
Indian Art Forms
Indian PaintingsClassical Dance FormsFolk Dance FormsClassical MusicPuppetryPotteryDrama/TheatreMartial ArtsLiteratureAncient Indian LiteratureClassical Sanskrit LiteratureLiterature in Pali and PrakritEarly Dravidian Literature
Medieval LiteratureWomen Poets of BhaktiTrends in Medieval LiteratureModern Indian LiteratureArchitectureHarappan ArchitectureTemple ArchitectureCave ArchitectureIndo-Islamic ArchitectureMedieval ArchitectureModern ArchitectureContribution of Buddhism & Jainism to the Development of Indian ArchitectureRock Cut ArchitectureColonial Architecture & the Modern Period
Modern Indian History
Middle of the Eighteenth Century Until The Present
Socio-economic Condition of PeopleEuropean Penetration of IndiaBritish Conquest of India
British Policies & Their Impact – Economic, Administrative & Socio-culturalSocio-cultural Reform MovementsUprisings Against British Pre-1857
The Freedom Struggle
Revolt of 1857Growth of Nationalism in India (1858-1905)
Political, Economic & Administrative Unification of the CountryRole of Western EducationRole of PressRediscovery of India’s PastEarly Political MovementsFormation of INCEra of ModeratesGrowth of Militant Nationalism & Revolutionary Activities (1905-1918)Swadeshi & Boycott MovementSurat SplitInternational InfluenceMorley – Minto ReformsGrowth of CommunalismBeginning of Mass Nationalism (1919-1939)Mahatma Gandhi – His Ideas & LeadershipMontagu-Chelmsford ReformsRowlatt Act, Satyagrah and Jallianwala Bagh MassacreNon-cooperation & Khilafat Movement
Swarajists & No-ChangersEmergence of New Forces – Socialistic Ideas, Youth & Trade UnionismRevolutionary ActivitySimon Commission & Nehru ReportCivil Disobedience MovementRound Table ConferencesCommunal Award & Poona PactParticipation in Elections to Central Legislature (1934) & Provincial Assemblies (1937)Government of India Act, 1935Towards Freedom & Partition (1939-1947)National Movement During World War IIAugust OfferIndividual SatyagrahaGrowth of CommunalismPeasant MovementsState People’s StruggleCripps MissionQuit India MovementWavell PlanINA & Subhash Chandra BoseCabinet MissionNationalist Upsurge Post-World War IIIndependence with Partition
Post-independence Consolidation
Nation BuildingPartition and Its AftermathIntegration of Princely StatesReorganisation of StatesIssue of Official LanguageTribal ConsolidationRegional AspirationsForeign PolicyNon-Aligned MovementPanchsheelWars with Pakistan & ChinaNuclear PolicyEconomyPlanned DevelopmentGreen Revolution, Operation Flood & CooperativesAgrarian & Land ReformsIndustrial ReformsLPG ReformsPolityEra of One-Party DominanceEmergence of Opposition PartiesEmergency: Crisis of Democratic OrderRise of Regional PartiesCoalition EraSocialPopular MovementsCommunalismIndian Women Since IndependenceNaxalism
History of the World
Industrial RevolutionRenaissanceDiscovery of Sea RoutesReformationCounter ReformationEuropean Nations Settle North AmericaRise of Slave TradeAmerican War of IndependenceFrench RevolutionNationalism in EuropeRise of Capitalism, Colonialism & ImperialismWorld War ICauses of the WarScope & Course of the WarRussian RevolutionEnd of the War & Peace TreatiesConsequences of the WarLeague of NationsWorld Between the Two WarsEurope After the War – Fascism & NazismThe Great DepressionEmergence of Soviet UnionNationalist Movements in Asia & AfricaUS as a Strong PowerWorld War IIFascist Aggression & Response of Western DemocraciesOutbreak of the WarTheatres of the WarUS Entry into the WarGlobal Nature of the WarThe HolocaustResistance MovementsAfter-effects of the WarDecolonialisation & Redrawal of National BoundariesEurope after World War IICold WarRise of Asia & AfricaDevelopments in West Asia & North AfricaSpread of CommunismKorean WarVietnam WarCuban CrisisCollapse of Soviet UnionConcept, Types & Social Impact of Political PhilosophiesCommunismCapitalismSocialism


Salient Features of Indian Society
Diversity (Types – caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture)Challenges posed by DiversityUnityPluralismUnity in DiversityInequality and ExclusionFamily SystemExamples of above. 
Role of Women and Women’s Organization
Women’s Organisations – Empowerment through Action19th Century Social Reform Movements and Early Women’s Organisations – (1) Agrarian Struggles and Revolt, (2) Participation in Freedom StruggleWomen’s Organisations Post – 1947Resurgence of Women’s Movement in the 70s: (1) Emergence of New Organisations, (2) Approaches and IssuesContemporary Women’s Issues & Organisation ResponseWomen’s Organisations and SHGsChallenges faced by Women’s Organisations
Population and Associated Issues
Basic Demography of IndiaPopulation Trends in India and their ImplicationsCauses and Effects of Over PopulationChallenges of Population ExplosionChanging Age Structure of Indian PopulationDemogarphic Dividend: Boon or Bane for IndiaPopulation Aging in IndiaIndia’s Population Policy & Initiatives
Poverty and Developmental Issues
Concept of Development and PovertyTypes of PovertyMeasurement of Poverty – Poverty LineCauses of PovertyPoverty as a Social ProblemSocio-economic Spread of PovertyConsequences of Poverty –InequalityContinuation of Vicious CycleWho are worst affected by poverty?Problem of Rising Urban PovertyPoverty Alleviation InitiativesPolicy shift from “Trickle Down” Economics to Inclusive or Pro-poor Development to Reduce PovertyRelation between Poverty Reduction and Development: Poverty-Inequality-Development Nexus
Urbanisation Trends in India and Their Implications – Demographic and Social DimensionsFactors Driving UrbanisationState of Service Delivery and Challeges posed by UrbanisationProblems of Urban AreasSocial Consequences of UrbanisationImpact of Urbanisation in Rural AreasUrban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)Reforms Required and Government Initiatives Taken So FarProblems of Slums
Effects of Globalization on Indian Society
Understanding Globalisation – Its Different DimensionsGlobalisation & Culture – Homogenisation vs. GlocalisationFactors Driving GlobalisationGlobalisation & IndiaImpact of Globalisation on India – Socio-cultural, economic, on women, agrarian sector etc.Does Globalisation cause Poverty?
Social Empowerment
Which are the Socially Disadvantaged Groups?Dimensions of Social EmpowermentGovernment Initiatives to Aide Social Empowerment
Communalism – Its CharacteristicsCommunalism in India in the PastCommunalism in Contemporqary IndiaCauses of CommunalismConsequences of CommunalismMeasures to Control & Eradicate CommunalismSecularism as an Antidote to Communalism
Concept of Region & RegionalismDifferent Forms of RegionalismRegionalism in IndiaCauses of RegionalismConcept of ‘Sons of Soil’Consequences of RegionalismFederalism & RegionalismRole of Regional PartiesMeasures to Contain RegionalismRegionalism in the International Sphere
Concept of SecularismIndian Model of SecularismSecularism in IndiaNature & Practice of Secularism in IndiaUniform Civil CodeChallenges faced by Secularism in IndiaMeasures to Make India Truly Secular


Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography
GeomorphologyOrigin & Evolution of EarthInterior of the EarthDistribution of Continents & OceansPlate Tectonic TheoryDistribution of Earthquakes & VolcanoesRocks & Rock CycleGeomorphic Processes – Endogenic & ExogenicLandforms & their EvolutionOceanographyHydrological CycleSeafloor SpreadingOcean Floor ConfigurationTemperature & Salinity of OceansMovement of Oceans – Waves, Tides, CurrentsClimatologyEarth’s Atmosphere – Composition & StructureSolar Radiation, Heat Budget & TemperatureAtmospheric Circulation & Weather SystemsWorld Climate (examples)Soil GeographySoil & Soil ContentsProcess of Soil FormationSoil Forming FactorsTypes of Soils (examples)Soil Erosion & Conservation
Distribution of Key Natural Resources Across the World
Types of ResourcesOn the Basis of Origin, Ownership, Exhaustability etc.Land ResourcesLand UtilisationLand Use PatternLand Degradation & ConservationForest ResourcesTypes & Distribution – Grasslands, Forests etc.Causes of DepletionConservation of ForestsWater ResourcesMarine & FreshwaterWater Scarcity & Need For ConservationIntegrated Water Resources ManagementAgricultural ResourcesTypes of FarmingCropping PatternsContribution to Economy, Employment & OutputFood SecurityMineral & Energy ResourcesClassification of Minerals – Ferrous & Non-FerrousOccurrence of MineralsConservation of MineralsClassification of Energy Resources – Conventional & Non-ConventionalOccurrence of Energy ResourcesConservation of Energy Resources
Factors Responsible for the Location of Industries
Classification of IndustriesLocation & Distribution of the Industries on the Basis ofRaw MaterialLabourMarketCapitalLandGrants & Financial IncentivesPowerTransportWaterCommunicationDistribution of Major Industries – Iron & Steel, IT, Cotton TextileAgglomeration & Footloose Industries
Important Geophysical Phenomena
EarthquakesWhy Does Earth Shake?Earthquake WavesShadow ZoneTypes of EarthquakeMeasuring EarthquakeEffects of EarthquakeTsunamiWhat Causes TsunamiEffect of TsunamiMitigating the Impact of TsunamiVolcanoesTypes of VolcanoesWhat Causes Volcanoes?Volcanic LandformsCycloneTropical CyclonesAnti-CycloneExtra Tropical Cyclones
Geographical Features and their Location
Factors Causing Changes in Critical Geographical FeaturesExamples of Changing Geographicl Features – Mealting of Ice Sheets, Desertification etc.Impact of Changing Geographical Features

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